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Stormwater Best Management Practices in an Ultra-Urban Setting: Selection and Monitoring

Table of Contents

List of Tables
List of Figures

  1. Introduction and Purpose
    1. Background
    2. Report Development
    3. Report Organization
  2. Stormwater Management in the Ultra-Urban Environment
    1. Introduction
    2. The Ultra-Urban Environment
      1. Target Water Quality Parameters
      2. Urban Stormwater Management
      3. Ultra-Urban BMP Technologies
      4. Ultra-Urban Design Considerations
  3. Best Management Practices in an Ultra-Urban Setting
    1. Overview of BMPs
    2. Infiltration Practices/Bioretention
      1. Description and Purpose
      2. Design Alternatives
    3. Detention and Retention/Wetland Practices
      1. Description and Purpose
      2. Design Alternatives
    4. Filtration Practices
      1. Description and Purpose
      2. Design Alternatives
    5. Vegetated Swales/Filter Strips
      1. Description and Purpose
      2. Design Alternatives
    6. Water Quality Inlets
      1. Description and Purpose
      2. Design Alternatives
    7. Porous Pavements
      1. Description and Purpose
      2. Design Alternatives
    8. Streetsweeping
      1. Description and Purpose
      2. Design Alternatives
    9. Other Nonstructural BMPs
      1. Introduction
      2. Options and Strategies for Implementation
      3. Effectiveness
      4. Cost Considerations
    10. New and Innovative Practices
      1. Description and Purpose
      2. Alum Injection Systems
      3. MCTT System
      4. Biofilters
      5. Vegetated Rock Filters
      6. Vertical Filter Systems

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  1. Monitoring Program Development
    1. Introduction
    2. The Phases of a Monitoring Program
    3. Monitoring Program Planning Phase
      1. Management Goals
      2. Physical Site and BMP Characterization
      3. Project Resources and Physical Site Constraints
      4. Monitoring Objectives
    4. Monitoring Program Design Phase
      1. Data Quality Objectives
      2. Sampling Design Plan
      3. Data Management Plan
      4. Quality Assurance Project Plan
    5. Monitoring Program Implementation Phase
      1. Equipment Installation and Testing Procedures
      2. Finalization of Field Operating Procedures
      3. Preliminary Review of Testing and/or Initial Monitoring Results
      4. Sampling Design Plan and Implementation Review
    6. Monitoring Program Evaluation Phase
      1. Data Analysis Techniques
      2. Reference Conditions
      3. Prioritizing Constituents

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  1. Selected BMP Monitoring Studies
    1. Introduction
    2. Case Study Presentations
  2. Selection of Best Management Practices
    1. Introduction
    2. The Elements of a BMP Selection Process
    3. The Scoping Phase
      1. Management Goals and Objectives
      2. Site Characterization
      3. Screening of Structural BMPs
      4. Screening Nonstructural BMPs
    4. Evaluation Phase
      1. Evaluation of Structural BMPs
      2. Evaluation of Nonstructural BMPs
      3. Multiple BMP Treatment Train
    5. Final Selection Phase
      1. Cost Effectiveness
      2. Management and Public Acceptance

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List of Tables

  1. Constituents and sources in highway runoff
  2. Constituents of highway runoff
  3. Overview of BMPs
  4. Site considerations
  5. Management considerations
  6. Pollutant removal effectiveness (%)
  7. Estimated pollutant removal effectiveness for water quality trenches (%)
  8. Estimated pollutant removal effectiveness for infiltration basins (%)
  9. Detention and retention BMP options
  10. Pollutant removal effectiveness of detention ponds (%)
  11. Pollutant removal effectiveness for wetlands (%)
  12. Pollutant removal effectiveness for underground sand filters (%)
  13. Pollutant removal effectiveness for surface sand filters (%)
  14. Pollutant removal effectiveness of organic filters (%)
  15. Pollutant removal effectiveness for swales (%)
  16. Pollutant removal effectiveness for filter strips (%)
  17. Pollutant removal effectiveness for porous pavement (%)
  18. Efficiencies of mechanical (broom) and vacuum-assisted sweepers
  19. PM-10 Particulate removal efficiencies for various sweepers
  20. Constituents and sources in highway runoff
  21. Constituents of highway runoff, ranges of average values reported in the literature
  22. Example of BMP characteristics relevant to developing a monitoring program
  23. Primary constituent removal mechanisms in selected BMP categories
  24. Typical costs associated with establishment of an automated BMP monitoring station
  25. Summary of water quality and sediment sampling techniques
  26. Data analysis with greater than 15% nondetects
  27. Swale section and slope data
  28. Pond pollutant removal efficiency (individual storms)
  29. Swale pollutant removal efficiency (individual storms)
  30. Design parameters
  31. Pollutant removal efficiencies (%)
  32. Filter medium characteristics
  33. Effectiveness for filter no. 3 (%)
  34. Effectiveness for filter no. 6 (%)
  35. Mass balance pollutant removal efficiencies for three seasons of testing (%)
  36. Removal efficiency of the sump
  37. Removal efficiency of the VVRS
  38. VVRS system removal efficiency
  39. Mean of sample concentrations based on buffer width
  40. Mean of sample concentrations based on vegetative cover
  41. Comparison of pollutant load reductions from various sweeping frequencies and wet vaults (%)
  42. Medium type and vegetation for packed bed filter system
  43. Overall system mass balance removal efficiency
  44. Overall system removal efficiency (%) for three different flow rates
  45. Example of how management objectives can be used to derive screening criteria
  46. Primary function of BMPs and ability to address management objectives
  47. Site considerations for structural BMPs
  48. Constituents and sources in highway runoff
  49. Constituents of highway runoff, ranges of average values reported in the literature
  50. General transport and BMP removal processes for selected constituents
  51. Pollutant removal effectiveness (%)
  52. Relative rankings of cost elements and effective life of structural BMP options
  53. Nonstructural BMPs and their constituent removal mechanisms
  54. Mass-balance pollutant removal efficiencies for constituents and BMPs of interest
  55. Nonstructural BMP constituent removal effectiveness
  56. Example of potential ranking factors for final selection
  57. Relative rankings of cost elements and effective life of BMP options
  58. BMP selection process illustration: Example #1
  59. Final selection phase illustration: Example #2
  60. BMP selection process illustration: Example #3

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List of Figures

  1. Changes in runoff flow resulting from increased impervious area (adapted from North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, as cited in Livingston and McCarron, 1992)
  2. Location of ultra-urban monitoring studies based on BMP type (number of symbols indicates the number of BMP evaluations)
  3. Underground trench with oil/grit chamber (adapted from Schueler, 1987)
  4. Median strip trench design (adapted from Schueler, 1987)
  5. Schematic of an infiltration basin design (Young et al., 1996)
  6. Parking edge and perimeter without curb (Prince George's County, Maryland, 1993)
  7. Design Variations
  8. Cross-section view of a standard extended detention pond system (Schueler, 1992)
  9. Schematic design of a shallow ED marsh system (adapted from Schueler, 1992)
  10. Movement of water through a detention pond-wetlands system (Martin and Smoot, 1986)
  11. Basic CMP stormwater detention system (adapted from Pacific Corrugated Pipe, 1995)
  12. Original D.C. underground sand filter system (Young et al., 1996)
  13. Delaware sand filter with grated inlets (Bell et al., 1995)
  14. Austin sand filter with full sedimentation protection (Young et al., 1996)
  15. Typical peat-sand filter cross section (Young et al., 1996)
  16. Cross section of a StormFilter siphon-actuated cartridge (Stormwater Management, 1998)
  17. Channels and swales (Claytor & Schueler, 1996)
  18. Dry swale (adapted from Claytor & Schueler, 1996)
  19. Wet swale (adapted from Claytor & Schueler, 1996)
  20. Typical filter strip (adapted from Claytor & Schueler, 1996)
  21. Schematic of an oil/grit separator (OGS) (adapted from Schueler, 1987)
  22. Typical features of a catch basin insert (King County, Washington, 1995)
  23. Stormceptor7 operation during average flow conditions (Stormceptor7, 1995)
  24. Downstream Defender (H.I.L. Technology, 1996)
  25. Vortechs Stormwater Treatment System (Vortechnics, 1996)
  26. Types of grid and modular pavements (Virginia Soil and Water Commission, 1990)
  27. Typical applications of modular block porous pavement (not to scale) (Urban Drainage and Flood Control District, 1992)
  28. Schematic of typical porous pavement section (Young et al., 1996)
  29. Modular block porous pavement (adapted from Urban Drainage and Flood Control District, 1992)
  30. Levels of involvement in nonstructural BMP programs that may be part of watershed planning for stormwater management (adapted from Greenfield & LeCouteur, 1994)
  31. Maintenance yard nonstructural BMPs (adapted from CDM, 1993)
  32. Materials handling measures (adapted from CDM, 1993)
  33. General schematic of the MCTT (Pitt, 1996)
  34. StormTreat7 System Tank (adapted from StormTreat Systems, 1996)
  35. Vegetated rock filter (adapted from Claytor and Schueler, 1996)
  36. Typical vertical filtration system (Tenney et al., 1995)
  37. Key phases for the development of a monitoring program
  38. Components of the program planning phase
  39. Development of monitoring objectives
  40. Components of the monitoring program design phase
  41. Upstream-downstream design
  42. Paired watershed approach
  43. Distribution of BOD and suspended solids with depth (Marsalek, 1973)
  44. Sample monitoring configuration (Young et al., 1996)
  45. Flow proportional composite sampling to determine EMC (D'Andrea et al., 1993)
  46. Rainfall frequency
  47. Example of flow duration curve
  48. Example of sampling strategy based on flow duration curve
  49. Locations of the two study areas in east-central Dade County (McKenzie and Irwin, 1988)
  50. Schematic section of a typical exfiltration trench (adapted from McKenzie and Irwin, 1988)
  51. Sketch of Massie Road parking lot and detention pond (Yu et al., 1993)
  52. Layout of detention pond (Yu et al., 1993)
  53. Outfall structure details at detention pond (adapted from Yu et al., 1993)
  54. Modified swale with barrier to lateral flow (Yu et al., 1993)
  55. Cross section of swale at each of four weir locations (Yu et al., 1993)
  56. General layout of AirPark filters (adapted from Bell et al., 1995)
  57. Cross-section of filter chamber (adapted from Spearman and Beard, 1995)
  58. Prototype compost stormwater filter (cross section) (Stewart, 1992)
  59. Prototype compost stormwater filter (plan view) (adapted from Stewart, 1992)
  60. Prototype compost stormwater filter (long cross section) (adapted from Stewart, 1992)
  61. Vertical Volume Recovery Structure system at rest prior to rainfall event (adapted from Dyer, Riddle, Mills, & Precourt, 1996)
  62. Vertical Volume Recovery Structure full utilization of treatment volume (Dyer, Riddle, Mills, & Precourt, 1996)
  63. Vertical Volume Recovery Structure backwash operation (Dyer, Riddle, Mills, & Precourt, 1996)
  64. Test plot configuration (Glick et al., 1993)
  65. Collection flume and collection bottle layout (Glick et al., 1993)
  66. Sampling locations (Dyer, Riddle, Mills, & Precourt, 1995)
  67. Key phases of a BMP selection process

NOTICE

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof. The contents of this report reflect the view of the contractor, who is responsible for the accuracy of the data presented herein. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views or policy of the Department of Transportation. This report does not constitute a standard, specification, or regulation.

The United States Government does not endorse products of manufactures. Trade or manufacturers' names appear herein only because they are considered essential to the object of this document.

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Marlys Osterhues (marlys.osterhues@dot.gov, 202-366-2052).

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