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State Plant Listings

South Dakota

Vegetation References

(Dominant plant species present in each vegetation type are listed in Appendix C)

16 Black Hills Pine Forest (Pinus)
59 Wheatgrass-Needlegrass (Agropyron-Stipa)
60 Wheatgrass-Bluestem-Needlegrass (Agropyron-Andropogon-Stipa)
61 Wheatgrass-Grama-Buffalo Grass (Andropogon-Bouteloua-Buchloe)
66 Bluestem Prairie (Andropogon-Panicum-Sorghastrum)
67 Sandhills Prairie (Andropogon-Calamovilfa)
89 Northern Floodplain Forest (Populus-Salix-Ulmus)

Botanical Experts

David Ode, Botanist/Ecologist
South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks Department
523 E. Capitol
Pierre, SD 57501
(605) 773-4227
(605) 773-6245 (fax)
internet: dave.ode@state.sd.us

Dr. Gary E. Larson
Biology Department
PO Box 2207B
South Dakota State University
Brookings, SD 57007
(605) 688-4552
internet: gary.larson@sdstate.edu

Dr. Fred Peabody
Biology Department
414 E. Clark Street
University of South Dakota
Vermillion, SD 57069
(605) 677-6176
internet: fpeabody@sunflowr.usd.edu

Recommended Flora

Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas. Lawrence, Kansas

Native Plants for Landscape Use in South Dakota

Forbs (annuals/biennials)

Cleome serrulata (Rocky Mountain beeplant)
Coreopsis tinctoria (tickseed, goldenwave, plains coreopsis, calliopsis)
Euphorbia marginata (snow-on-the-mountain)
Gaillardia pulchella (Indian blanket, firewheel)
Helianthus annuus (common sunflower)
Helianthus petiolaris (plains sunflower)
Linum rigidum (yellow flax)
Oenothera albicaulis (pale evening primrose)
Oenothera biennis (common evening primrose)
Oenothera rhombipetala (diamond-petal primrose, four-point evening primrose)
Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan)
Senecio plattensis (prairie ragwort, prairie groundsel)
Townsendia exscapa (Easter daisy)

Forbs (perennials)

Aconitum columbianum (western monkshood)
Acorus calamus (sweet flag, calamus)
Ageratina altissima var. altissima (white snakeroot)
Allium canadense (wild garlic)
Allium cernuum (nodding onion)
Allium stellatum (wild pink onion)
Anaphalis margaritacea (pearly everlasting)
Anemone canadensis (Canada anemone, windflower)
Anemone caroliniana (Carolina anemone, southern thimbleweed)
Anemone cylindrica (thimbleweed, candle anemone)
Anemone multifida (early thimbleweed, cut-leaf anemone, Pacific anemone)
Antennaria spp. (pussytoes, everlasting)
Apocynum androsaemifolium (spreading dogbane)
Aquilegia canadensis (columbine)
Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit, Indian turnip)
Arnica cordifolia (heartleaf arnica)
Artemisia ludoviciana (white sage, prairie sage, artemisia)
Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed)
Asclepias speciosa (showy milkweed)
Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed)
Aster ericoides (heath aster, white wreath aster)
Aster laevis (smooth aster)
Aster novae-angliae (New England aster)
Aster oblongifolius (aromatic aster)
Aster sericeus (silky aster)
Astragalus americanus (American milk vetch, rattlepod)
Astragalus canadensis (milk vetch, Canada milk vetch)
Calochortus nuttallii (sego lily, mariposa lily)
Campanula rotundifolia (harebell)
Castilleja sessiliflora (downy painted cup)
Coreopsis palmata (stiff coreopsis)
Dalea candida (white prairie clover)
Dalea purpurea (purple prairie clover)
Desmodium canadense (Canada tick-trefoil, Canada tickclover)
Desmodium illinoense (Illinois tick-trefoil, Illinois tickclover)
Echinacea angustifolia (narrow-leaved purple coneflower)
Erigeron compositus (alpine daisy)
Erigeron speciosus (showy fleabane)
Eupatorium maculatum (spotted Joe-pye weed)
Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset)
Euphorbia corollata (flowering spurge)
Euthamia graminifolia var. graminifolia (grass-leaved goldenrod)
Fragaria virginiana (wild strawberry)
Gaillardia aristata (blanket flower, gaillardia, brown-eyed Susan)
Galium triflorum (sweet-scented bedstraw)
Gaura coccinea (scarlet gaura)
Gentiana andrewsii (bottle gentian)
Geranium viscossisimum (sticky wild geranium)
Geum triflorum (prairie smoke, purple avens)
Glandularia bipinnatifida var. bipinnatifida (prairie verbena, Dakota vervain)
Glycyrrhiza lepidota (wild licorice)
Helenium autumnale (common sneezeweed)
Helianthus maximiliani (Maximilian sunflower)
Helianthus pauciflorus ssp. pauciflorus (stiff sunflower)
Heliopsis helianthoides (ox-eye sunflower, false sunflower)
Heterotheca villosa var. villosa (golden aster)
Heuchera richardsonii (alum root)
Hydrophyllum virginianum (Virginia waterleaf)
Hypoxis hirsuta (yellow star grass)
Ipomoea leptophylla (bush morning glory)
Iris missouriensis (Rocky Mountain iris, western blue flag)
Lespedeza capitata (roundheaded bush clover)
Liatris aspera (rough blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris punctata (dotted blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris pycnostachya (prairie blazing star, gayfeather)
Liatris squarrosa (blazing star)
Lilium michiganense (Turk's cap lily, Michigan lily)
Lilium philadelphicum (wood lily)
Linum lewisii (wild blue flax)
Lithospermum canescens (hoary puccoon)
Lithospermum caroliniense (hairy puccoon, hispid gromwell)
Lithospermum incisum (fringed puccoon, narrow-leaved puccoon)
Lobelia spicata (pale lobelia)
Mimosa quadrivalvis var. angustata (catclaw sensitive briar)
Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot, horsemint, beebalm)
Nothocalais cuspidata (prairie dandelion)
Nuphar lutea (yellow pond lily, cow lily, spatter dock)
Oenothera cespitosa (gumbo evening primrose, gumbo lily)
Oenothera flava (shortfin evening primrose)
Osmorhiza berteroi (mountain sweet cicely)
Osmorhiza claytoni (sweet cicely, sweet jarvil)
Penstemon albidus (white beardtongue)
Penstemon angustifolius (whorled penstemon)
Penstemon grandiflorus (large-flowered penstemon)
Phlox hoodii (phlox)
Phlox pilosa (prairie phlox, downy phlox)
Physostegia virginiana (obedient plant, false dragonhead)
Pulsatilla patens ssp. multifida (pasque flower, wild crocus)
Ratibida columnifera (prairie coneflower, long-headed coneflower, Mexican hat)
Ratibida pinnata (gray-headed coneflower, yellow coneflower)
Rudbeckia laciniata (cut-leaf coneflower)
Senecio plattensis (prairie ragwort, prairie groundsel)
Silphium integrifolium (rosinweed)
Silphium laciniatum (compass plant)
Silphium perfoliatum (cup plant)
Sisyrinchium angustifolium (narrow-leaved blue-eyed grass)
Sisyrinchium campestre (white-eyed grass, prairie blue-eyed grass)
Solidago canadensis (meadow goldenrod)
Solidago missouriensis (Missouri goldenrod, prairie goldenrod)
Solidago nemoralis (gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod)
Solidago speciosa (showy goldenrod)
Tetraneuris acaulis var. acaulis (stemless goldflower, stemless rubber weed, butte marigold)
Thalictrum dasycarpum (tall or purple meadow rue)
Townsendia exscapa (Easter daisy)
Tradescantia bracteata (spiderwort)
Verbena hastata (blue verbena, blue vervain)
Vernonia fasciculata (ironweed)
Viola canadensis (Canadian white violet)
Viola pedatifida (prairie violet)
Viola pubescens (downy or smooth yellow violet)
Yucca glauca (yucca, soapweed)
Zizia aptera (heart-leaved golden alexanders)
Zizia aurea (golden alexanders)

Grasses/Grass-like plants

Agrostis exarata (spikebent, spike red top)
Andropogon gerardii (big bluestem)
Andropogon hallii (sand bluestem)
Bouteloua curtipendula (sideoats grama)
Bouteloua gracilis (blue grama)
Bouteloua hirsuta (hairy grama)
Bromus carinatus (California brome)
Bromus kalmii (prairie brome, wild chess)
Buchloe dactyloides (buffalograss)
Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass)
Calamagrostis stricta (bluejoint grass)
Calamovilfa longifolia (sandreed grass, prairie sandreed)
Carex aquatilis (water sedge)
Carex nebrascensis (Nebraska sedge)
Carex stipata (awl-fruited sedge)
Carex stricta (tussock sedge)
Carex utriculata (beaked sedge)
Danthonia spicata (poverty grass)
Deschampsia cespitosa (tufted hairgrass)
Eleocharis palustris (creeping spikesedge, spike rush)
Elymus canadensis (Canada wild rye)
Elymus glaucus (blue wild rye)
Elymus lanceolatus (thickspike wheatgrass)
Festuca ovi na (sheep fescue)
Glyceria grandis (American mannagrass, tall mannagrass, reed meadowgrass)
Hierochloe odorata (sweet grass)
Juncus interior (inland rush)
Koeleria macrantha (June grass)
Leersia oryzoides (rice cut grass)
Oryzopsis hymenoides (Indian ricegrass)
Panicum virgatum (switchgrass)
Pascopyrum smithii (western wheatgrass)
Poa secunda (pine bluegrass)
Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem)
Scirpus acutus (hardstem bulrush)
Scirpus cyperinus (wool grass)
Scirpus maritimus (alkali bulrush, prairie bulrush, bayonet grass)
Scirpus tabernaemontani (great bulrush)
Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass)
Spartina pectinata (prairie cordgrass, freshwater cordgrass
Sporobolus heterolepis (northern prairie dropseed)
Stipa comata (needle-and-thread grass)
Stipa nelsonii (Columbia needlegrass)
Stipa spartea (porcupine grass)
Typha angustifolia (narrow-leaved cattail)
Typha latifolia (cattail)

Shrubs (deciduous)

Amelanchier alnifolia (saskatoon, western serviceberry, Juneberry)
Amorpha canescens (leadplant)
Amorpha fruticosa (false indigo, Indigo bush)
Amorpha nana (dwarf wild indigo)
Artemisia frigida (prairie sagewort, fringed sage)
Chrysothamnus nauseosus (rabbit brush, chamisa)
Cornus racemosa (gray dogwood)
Cornus sericea (red-twig dogwood, red-osier dogwood)
Corylus americana (American hazelnut or filbert)
Corylus cornuta (beaked hazelnut or filbert)
Euonymus atropurpurea (wahoo, burning bush)
Lonicera dioica (limber or wild honeysuckle)
Prunus pumila var. besseyi (sand cherry)
Prunus virginiana (chokecherry)
Rhus glabra (smooth sumac)
Ribes cynosbati (prickly gooseberry, dogberry)
Ribes odoratum (buffalo currant, golden currant)
Rosa arkansana (prairie rose)
Rosa blanda (early wild rose, smooth rose)
Rosa woodsii (western wild rose, woods rose)
Rubus idaeus ssp. strigosus (red raspberry)
Rubus occidentalis (black raspberry, thimbleberry)
Salix bebbiana (Bebb willow, long-beaked willow)
Salix eriocephala (Missouri willow, diamond willow)
Salix exigua (sandbar willow)
Salix discolor (pussy willow)
Salix scouleriana (western pussy willow, Scouler's willow)
Sambucus canadensis (elderberry, common elder)
Sarcobatus vermiculatus (greasewood)
Shepherdia argentea (silver buffaloberry)
Shepherdia canadensis (buffaloberry)
Sorbus scopulina (western mountain ash)
Spiraea alba (meadow sweet)
Symphoricarpos albus (snowberry)
Symphoricarpos occidentalis (wolfberry, buckbush)
Viburnum lentago (black haw, nannyberry)
Viburnum opulus var. americanum (high-bush cranberry, American cranberrybush viburnum)

Shrubs (evergreen)

Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (bearberry, kinnikinnik)
Artemisia tridentata (big sagebrush, Great Basin sagebrush)
Ceanothus velutinus (mountain balm, buckbush)
Cercocarpus montanus (mountain mahogany, silverleaf mountain mahogany)
Juniperus communis (common juniper)
Juniperus horizontalis (creeping juniper, creeping savin)

Trees (deciduous)

Acer negundo (box elder)
Acer saccharinum (silver maple)
Betula occidentalis (mountain birch, water birch)
Betula papyrifera (paper birch)
Celtis occidentalis (hackberry, sugarberry)
Fraxinus pennsylvanica (green ash)
Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust)
Gymnocladus dioica (Kentucky coffee tree)
Juglans nigra (black walnut)
Ostrya virginiana (ironwood, hophornbeam)
Pinus contorta var. murrayana (lodgepole pine)
Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood)
Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen)
Prunus americana (wild plum)
Prunus mexicana (Mexican plum)
Quercus macrocarpa (bur oak)
Salix amygdaloides (peachleaf willow)
Tilia americana (American linden, basswood)
Ulmus americana (American elm)
Ulmus rubra (red elm, slippery elm)

Trees (evergreen)

Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain juniper)
Juniperus virginiana (eastern red cedar)
Picea glauca (white spruce)
Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine)

Vines (deciduous)

Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet)
Clematis ligusticifolia (clematis)
Clematis virginiana (virgin's bower)
Parthenocissus quinquefolia var. quinquefolia (woodbine)
Vitis riparia (riverbank grape)

Federally Listed Endangered Species

Natural Heritage Data Base
SD Department of Game, Fish & Parks
523 E. Capitol Avenue
Pierre, SD 57501
(605) 773-4227
(605) 773-6245 (fax)

The Nature Conservancy Field Office
1000 West Avenue North, Ste. 100
Sioux Falls, SD 57104
(605) 331-0619

South Dakota Resources Coalition
PO Box 7020
Brookings, SD 57007

South Dakota Noxious Species

Because the noxious weed lists have continually changed since we gathered them in 1994, we are not including them at this time. Not all States have noxious weed lists. Those that do, do not use the same standards of importance and are not comparable. States typically have included plants that interfere with agriculture (Canada thistle), or cause human health problems (poison ivy). Some States are now including a category of plants that invade and degrade the environment (purple loosestrife). Check with your State's Agriculture Department or Weed Scientist listed below. The noxious weed list can be used two ways on roadsides: 1) check to not inadvertently plant these invasive plants, and 2) note the plants you are legally responsible to control. Many States now check adjacent State lists to avoid planting their neighbors' problem plants. Because weeds do not respect political boundaries, and because by their very nature weeds continue to adapt and expand, monitoring and controlling invasives at State borders is a wise part of vegetation management.

(Weed and Seed Laws)

Department of Agriculture
Division of Regulatory Services
445 East Capitol, Anderson
Pierre, SD 57501

Leon J. Wrage, Agriculture
South Dakota State University
229 Ag. Hall, Box 2207A
Brookings, SD 57007
(605) 688-4591

South Dakota Resources

Natural Heritage Data Base
SD Department of Game, Fish & Parks
523 E. Capitol Avenue
Pierre, SD 57501
(605) 773-4227

The Nature Conservancy Field Office
1000 West Avenue North, Ste. 100
Sioux Falls, SD 57104
(605) 331-0619

South Dakota Resources Coalition
PO Box 7020
Brookings, SD 57007

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
420 S. Garfield, Suite 400
Pierre, SD 57501
(605) 224-8693

Great Plains Native Plant Society
PO Box 461
Hot Springs, SD 57747

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Questions and feedback should be directed to Marlys Osterhues (marlys.osterhues@dot.gov, 202-366-2052).

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